Pakistan ratified UNCRC in 1990 hence committed to convert its provisions, international values and principles into domestic standards, laws and policies for an appropriate child protection system. In the UNCRC Committee Concluding Observations, it was recommended to establish/ strengthen an effective and efficient Child Protection Monitoring and data collection system to systematically and comprehensively collect data from the entire country, disaggregated by sex, age, and rural and urban areas of all children below the age of 18 years, with emphasis on those who require affirmative social actions due to disadvantages and disparities.
Almost half of Pakistan’s population is under the age of 18 years. Children, along with women, are also the victims of human rights violations in Pakistan. Their plight is compounded by poverty, lack of healthcare and education as well as gender discrimination. Child labor is among the most visible and pervasive violations of children’s rights. Issues such as access to public services, education, corporal punishment, abuse and exploitation, children living and working on the streets, those in conflict zones and during displacement remains largely neglected. Registration of children at birth is also a fundamental right of the child to name and nationality however less than one third of children are registered at birth in Pakistan.
There is currently no systematic collection, analysis or reporting of information related to child rights violations, including conflict-related attacks on children in Pakistan. Provincial Departments of Education maintain data on physical damage to schools from attacks by armed groups: in 2010, more than 700 schools were reported as having been destroyed or damaged by bomb attacks throughout Pakistan; and in 2011 more than 150 school attacks have been recorded. Other conflict related violations in 2010 and 2011 included the recruitment and use of children by armed groups, including as suicide bombers, killing and maiming of children – including an intentional attack on a school bus in 2011 which killed four students, and abduction of children. Despite the widespread violations, the information was largely media based or anecdotal and has not enabled effective analysis of trends and possible responses.
While the majority of conflict related violations occur in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Balochistan, a significant number of violations including school attacks and the use of child suicide bombers take place across all provinces of Pakistan. Pakistan has also been included as a country of concern in the report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. While this does not necessitate a formalized monitoring and reporting mechanism, monitoring and reporting on grave violations of children’s rights in situations of armed conflict should also be strengthened.
In October 2011, UNICEF entered into an agreement with the Human Rights Commissions of Pakistan (HRCP) who is actively involved in collection of data from 100 Districts through District Coordinators and district volunteers, who are the principal information gatherers. HRCP is publishing data on violations of human rights through their magazines and reports published from their offices and disseminated within and outside the country. UNICEF made technical and financial inputs into HRCP existing data collection system through provision of:
1- High grade computers and related equipment and appropriate software
2- Training of HRCP District coordinators on the definitions and data collection forms.
3- Development of data collection forms
4- Human resource support for national and provincial data analysts
In late 2011, a database was developed and installed in all provincial offices and a training was conducted for all enumerators and district coordinators on concepts and monitoring methodology between December 2011 – January 2012. The first draft report was prepared in April 2012.
The partnership between UNICEF and the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has introduced into HRCP monitoring 13 child rights violations, including six conflict-related violations which impact on protection of education, namely: attacks on schools or hospitals, recruitment or use of children by armed groups, killing or maiming of children, rape or grave sexual violence, abduction and denial of humanitarian access for children. Information collected has been entered into a computerized database, which has been designed in consultation with UNICEF to facilitate assessment of trends and analysis. A lead analyst supervises the project and analysts at the provincial level run in-depth analysis of the data at the provincial level
The purpose of this consultancy is to facilitate a review of the HRCP child rights monitoring and reporting to date in and provide technical and capacity building support to strengthen the quality of data collection, analysis and presentation, with an emphasis on education and child protection related violations in conflict. This data will, in turn, better inform programmatic responses and policy dialogue to better protect children’s rights, including the right to education.
A key challenge that has so far emerged is the understanding and ability to monitor the conflict related violations. A number of revisions were made to the monitoring form between January – March 2012 in order to facilitate comprehension of concepts and clarity of data collected however further technical support is needed. Since the beginning of the year, only around 10 case of child rights violations in conflict have been reported in Khyber Pakhtunkwa – 6 of these involved attacks on schools while 4 were abductions by militant groups (including one child taken from school) and detention of a child by armed forces based on suspected association with militant groups. District coordinators and volunteers have reported particular difficulties in collecting information on conflict related violations, linked to security concerns and need for further training on concepts and monitoring techniques.
Objective of the consultancy
· To develop the capacity of national and provincial analysts to carry out data analysis, particularly in relation to conflict-related violations affecting education
· To further develop the capacity of district coordinators of HRCP on data collection and definitions of the indicators used to collect data
· Develop analytical reporting format for quarterly and semester reports for dissemination and assist HRCP team in designing and developing first semester report due in July 2012
· Exploring the roles and responsibilities that can be played by the government, community and members of the Education and Child protection (sub) clusters in supporting monitoring, reporting, analysis and action in relation to protection of education in conflict, including through the establishment of a Working Group on Protection of Education and Children Affected by Conflict and the links with the Department of Education
To use the collected data and analysis on violations for more focused advocacy, strategy development, programme design, public policy and administration concerning children affected by conflict.
Location: Islamabad with travel to provinces
Major tasks to be accomplished by the team:
Work Plan: (41 days)
a) Review current data, database and reports of HRCP and data of Department of Education on attacks on schools
b) Develop training material, including simple guidelines, for the district coordinators responsible for data collection and data validation in consultation with HRCP and UNICEF
c) Conduct provincial level workshop with HRCP teams in all provinces on the violations and definitions of the indicators on which data will be collected, with technical support from UNICEF
d) Training of National and provincial analysts on data analysis
e) Support to HRCP to prepare publishable1st semester report presenting trend analysis on the data
f) Prepare recommendations on actions needed to improve monitoring and reporting, including through partnerships with education actors
Outcomes: Training package, semester report, final report with recommendations.
Deliverables: (e.g. final report, article, document, etc.)
1. Training material and guidelines
2. Provincial workshops with District Coordinators and Islamabad workshop with Analysts
3. Printable 1st semester analytical reports on the violation of child rights, including conflict-related violations
4. Power point presentation on the analysis and trends
5. Final report including training reports and recommendations.
Time-Frame: 15 June to 30 August 2012